Sophia says: How to recognise indirect statement

Sophia says: How to recognise indirect statement
Greek expresses indirect or reported statement (often indicated by ‘that’ in English) in three main ways.

Verbs of saying and thinking: after φημι (I say) or νομιζω (I think) the verb of the indirect statement is infinitive; if the subject is the same use nominative and infinitive, if the subject of the indirect statement is different use accusative and infinitive; the negative is ου, which is normally placed before φημι
Examples
εφη αυτος ιεναι = He said that he himself would go
ου εφη αυτος ιεναι = He said that he himself would not go
εφη τον παιδα ειναι σοφον = He said that the boy was wise

Verbs of knowing and perceiving: after οιδα (I know), ακουω (I hear), ορω (I see) and other verbs of knowing and perceiving the verb of the indirect statement is a participle; other aspects of the construction are as above
Examples
οιδα ου σοφος ων = I know that I am not wise
οιδα τον παιδα οντα σοφον = I know that the boy is wise

‛οτι or ‛ως construction: after λεγω (I say) and some other verbs (including αγγελλω I announce, αποκρινομαι I reply) Greek uses ‛οτι or ‛ως (meaning ‘that’) followed by an indicative verb in the tense used by the original speaker; the negative is ου
Examples
λεγουσι ‛οτι ‛ο Πρωταγορας ου σοφος εστι = They say that Protagoras is not wise
απεκρινατο ‛οτι ‛οι πολεμιοι απηλθον = He replied that the enemy had departed

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