Sophia says: Understand purpose and result clauses

Sophia says: Understand purpose clauses and result clauses

Greek expresses purpose clauses (sometimes known as final clauses) in two main ways. It is important to distinguish these from result clauses (also known as consecutive clauses). Both are sometimes translated using ‘to…’ in English.

Purpose clauses may be expressed using ‛ινα, ‛ως or ‛οπως followed by the subjunctive (negative μη); or by using a future participle (negative ου):

πορευομεθα εκεισε ‛ινα τους δουλους λυσωμεν = We are marching there to set free the slaves
επεμψα τον παιδα λυσοντα τον βουν = I sent the boy to let out the cow

Result clauses are normally expressed using a combination of a signpost word meaning ‘so…’ or ‘too…’ (e.g. ‛ουτως, τοιουτος, τοσουτος) followed by ‘that…’ (normally ‛ωστε with the infinitive – negative μη):

‛οι Λακεδαιμονιοι εισι ‛ουτω ανδρειοι ‛ωστε αει ευ μαχεσθαι = The Spartans are so brave that they always fight well
ουχ ‛ουτω μωρος ειμι ‛ωστε τουτο ποιειν = I am not so foolish as to do this


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