Sophia says: Learn the rules of contraction

We have seen how vowels at the beginning of verbs may be lengthened by an augment. If verb stems end with a vowel, they may be merged (contracted) with the vowel of the ending.

It is helpful to learn these basic rules:

α + ε or η = α
α + ο or ω = ω
ι becomes subscript˛; υ disappears 

ε + ε = ει
ε + ο = ου
ε followed by a long vowel or diphthong disappears (NB a diphthong is two vowels combined to make one sound e.g. oi)

ο followed by a long vowel becomes ω
ο followed by a short vowel becomes ου
Any combination with ι becomes οι

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