Sophia says: Understand augments and reduplication

Sophia the donkey

Sophia the donkey

Sophia says: Understand augments and reduplication

An augment (increase) is added at the beginning of Greek main verbs to indicate past time, as in the imperfect and aorist tenses:

ελυον I was setting free
ελυσα I set free (did set free)

Reduplication is doubling of the sound at the beginning of a word, and is used in the perfect and pluperfect tenses:

λελυκα I have set free

In the pluperfect tense a (second) augment precedes the reduplicated perfect:

ελελυκη I had set free

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