Sophia says: Check the case and number

Sophia the donkey

Sophia the donkey

Sophia says: Check the case and number

We have already met the nominative and accusative cases, used for the subject and object. It is also important to recognise the other three cases in the singular and plural (known as number). Here are two second declension nouns as examples:

Second declension nouns – masculine (like λογος) and feminine (like νησος)
λογος (word)   νησος (island)  Nominative (used for the subject)
λογε                  νησε                  Vocative (used for addressing someone)
λογον                νησον                Accusative (used for the direct object)
λογου                νησου                Genitive (of…)
λογω˛                νησω˛               Dative (to…, for…; indirect object)

λογοι     νησοι     Nom
λογοι     νησοι     Voc
λογους   νησους  Acc
λογων    νησων   Gen
λογοις    νησοις   Dat

Remember that the definite article may also help you to determine the case and number of a noun. The case will help you to understand the function of each noun in a sentence. Look at this example:

‛η Χλοη φαινει τω˛ βατραχω˛ την αυλην.
Chloe shows the courtyard to the frog.

Although the word order is sometimes different in Greek and English, the case endings will guide you to the meaning.


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